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THE LEGAL STATUS OF THE CASPIAN SEA

THE LEGAL STATUS OF THE CASPIAN SEA: DISCUSSIONS ON DIFFERENT IRANIAN VIEWS

I-Introduction

All forecast of future global oil demand point to an increasing trend for the years to come. The forecast by OPEC’s World Energy Model suggests a world oil demand of about 84 million barrels per day in 2005, around 91 mb/d by 2010, close to 97 mb/d by 2015 and about 103 mb/d by 2020. OPEC members would have to come up with a crude oil and NGL production of about 36 mb/d in 2005, 41 mb/d in 2010, 47.8 mb/d in 2015 and 54.6 mb/d in 2020.

The security of energy supply to Asia/Pacific is becoming a big issue. By 2010, Asian/Pacific demand for oil would reach 33.5 million b/d if consumption growth averages 5% per annum. China alone could be consuming 7.2 mb/d by 2010 and 10.7 mb/d by 2020. Oil production in Asia/Pacific might decline from its current level of 6.3 mb/d. The Middle East would not be able to meet Asian /Pacific demand by then. The Caspian oil supply is important from that perspective.

In recent years, Iran has been holding a share in OPEC production in the range of 13 to 14 per cent. In order to maintain this share, Iran would need to produce at least 4.7 mb/d in 2005, increasing it thereafter by approximately 160000 b/d per year, reaching 7.1 mb/d by the year 2020. As a result Iran needs to develop adequate volumes to not only counter the natural decline in the present production but also to meet the required additional production capacities. It goes without saying that with proven oil reserves of over 90 billion barrels, Iran has more than enough potential but, with a present capacity of over 4mb/d much work needs to be done and this means a very intense level of activities specially in attraction of foreign investments, new technologies, exploring new fields and extensive EOR operations in many of Iran’s giant older fields.

Iran’s recent activities in oil and gas industries are very interesting. These are like two-dimensional blanket seismic of the Iranian part of Persian Gulf, negotiations over buy-back agreement on Dar Khuwain field and development of new field of Azadegan with 26 billion barrels, Bangestan reservoirs in Ahwaz, gas injection in the Asmari reservoir of the Agha Jari (about 2 billion cubic feet per day with additional oil recovery in the range of 1.7 to 3 billion barrels) and South Pars gas reserve around 460 TCF in the Persian Gulf.

View: 1395 | Date: 26-04-2008, 11:29 | Category: Caspian sea | More...

PROTRACTED NEGOTIATIONS

PROTRACTED NEGOTIATIONS

In the conditions of growing uncertainty at the world oil market, related with Iraqi conflict the situation with Caspian oil continues to remain indefinite as well.

Last weeks were saturated with the information, to some extent reflecting the political and economic facets of the problem: Russian company "Lukoil" left the project "Azeri-chirag-Guneshli", a scandal in "Tengizchevroil", a possibility that the American company "Kerr McGee" will leave Kazakhstan, an active opposition of Russian company "Transneft" to the "quality bank" at the Caspian Pipeline Consortium pipeline and other.

In relation with this quite characteristic was the news about the transfer of the date of the meeting between representatives of five Caspian countries at the level of deputy foreign ministers. The eigth meeting of the working group, previously planned on 19-20 November in Baku dedicated to the issues of the legal status of Caspian Sea, was transferred at the beginning of December, moreover that decision was not final as of yet and could be changed in the future. At the preceding, July meeting of the working group in Teheran, the "consensus" solution of the problem, as it is known, in fact did not move from the dead point.

View: 1080 | Date: 26-04-2008, 11:17 | Category: Caspian sea | More...

THE LEGAL STATUS OF THE CASPIAN SEA

THE LEGAL STATUS OF THE CASPIAN SEA

(The following is a summary of a panel discussion held at The Middle East Institute on September 19, 2001. The principal speakers were Dr. Elmar Mamedyarov, Chargé d’Affaires, Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan and Dr. Bahman Diba, a former Iranian diplomat, now a consultant and specialist on international and legal affairs. Dr. Michael Collins Dunn, editor of The Middle East Journal, served as moderator.)

In his introductory remarks, Michael Dunn recounted the circumstances and significance of the July 23rd confrontation between an Iranian military vessel and an Azerbaijani ship conducting geophysical studies in disputed waters of the Caspian Sea. This incident, Dunn asserted, was a stark reminder that the apportioning of offshore rights has not yet been resolved to the satisfaction of the five Caspian littoral states. Dunn noted that the principal documents pertaining to the legal status of the Caspian are treaties signed by Iran and the Soviet Union in 1921 and 1940. Iran has insisted that the provisions of these treaties still apply, while the positions of the other littoral states (i.e., Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan) have varied. Dunn pointed out that the dispute has not deterred the parties from pursuing exploration, signing contracts, or entering bilateral pacts on how to divide the Caspian. Yet, at the same time, the continuation of the status quo runs the risk of repeated incidents and heightened tensions of the kind that occurred this past July.

View: 1122 | Date: 25-04-2008, 11:01 | Category: Caspian sea | More...

TEHERAN: LEGAL STATUS OF THE CASPIAN SEA SHOULD BE BASED ON USSR-IRAN TREATIES

TEHERAN: LEGAL STATUS OF THE CASPIAN SEA SHOULD BE BASED ON USSR-IRAN TREATIES

The legal status of the Caspian Sea must be based on the USSR-Iran treaties signed in 1921 and 1940, Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi said in an exclusive interview with RIA Novosti.
Mr Kharrazi pointed to the usefulness of his Caspian Sea talks with Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov but said all the Caspian states should agree on the sea's comprehensive legal status.

The Iranian foreign minister welcomes oil cooperation in the area but believes it of primary importance to agree upon common territories and territories of each state.

View: 921 | Date: 25-04-2008, 10:57 | Category: Caspian sea | More...

CASPIAN SEA

CASPIAN SEA

The Caspian Sea is situated on the border of Europe and Asia. It is bordered with Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan. The Caspian is the largest inland body of water in the world.

Since the ancient times, this water basin was in the focus of attention of famous travellers, scientists and state officials for its beauty, magic and enigmatic world.

View: 1198 | Date: 12-03-2008, 10:21 | Category: Caspian sea | More...

Karasin: Russia seeks Caspian Sea to be an example of cooperation, not confrontation

Karasin: Russia seeks Caspian Sea to be an example of cooperation, not confrontation
Karasin: Russia seeks Caspian Sea to be an example of cooperation, not confrontation

View: 114 | Date: 17-05-2017, 17:42 | Category: Caspian sea | More...

Moscow says draft convention on Caspian Sea’s status almost ready for signing

Moscow says draft convention on Caspian Sea’s status almost ready for signing
Moscow says draft convention on Caspian Sea’s status almost ready for signing

View: 167 | Date: 14-04-2017, 17:04 | Category: Caspian sea | More...